Since the COVID-19 pandemic started, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) appeared as a therapeutic option to reduce the over-activated inflammatory response and promote recovery of lung damage. Most clinical studies use intravenous injection for MSC delivery, raising several concerns of thrombogenic risk due to MSC procoagulant activity (PCA) linked to the expression of tissue factor (TF/CD142). This is the first study that demonstrated procoagulant activity of TF+ human immature dental pulp stromal cells (hIDPSC, NestaCell® product) with the percentage of TF+ cells varied from 0.2% to 63.9% in plasma of healthy donors and COVID-19 heparin-treated patients. Thrombogenic risk of TF+ hIDPSCs was evaluated by rotational thromboelastometry (in vitro) and in critically ill COVID-19 patients (clinical trial). We showed that the thromboelastography is not enough to predict the risk of TF+ MSC therapies. Using TF-negative HUVEC cells, we demonstrated that TF is not a unique factor responsible for the cell’s procoagulant activity. However, heparin treatment minimizes MSC procoagulant (in vitro). We also showed that the intravenous infusion of hIDPSCs with prophylactic enoxaparin administration in moderate to critically ill COVID-19 patients did not change the values of D-dimer, neither in the PT and PTT times. Our COVID-19 clinical study measured and selected the therapeutic cells with low TF (less than 25% of TF+ hIDPSCs). Our data indicate that the concomitant administration of enoxaparin and low TF-loaded is safe even for critically ill COVID-19 patients.

Fuente: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy
Available online 1 April 2022, 112920