COVID-19 Coronavirus variants are emerging across the globe causing ongoing pandemics. It is important to estimate the case fatality ratio (CFR) during such an epidemic of a potentially fatal disease. Methods: Firstly, we have performed a non-parametric approach for odds ratios with corresponding confidence intervals (CIs) and illustrated relative risks and cumulative mortality rates of COVID-19 data of Spain. We have demonstrated the modified non-parametric approach based on Kaplan-Meier (KM) technique using COVID-19 data of Italy. We have also performed the significance of characteristics of patients regarding outcome by age for both gender. Furthermore, we have applied a non-parametric cure model using Nadaraya-Watson weight to estimate cure-rate using Israel data. Simulations are based on R- software. Results: The analytical illustrations of these approaches predict the effects of patients based on covariates in different scenarios. Sex differences are increased from ages less than 60 years to 60-69 years but decreased thereafter with the smallest sex difference at ages 80 years in a case for estimating both purposes RR (Relative Risk) and OR (Odds Ratio). The non-parametric approach investigates the range of cure-rate ranges from 5.3% to 9% and from 4% to 7% approximately for male and female respectively. The modified KM estimator performs for such censored data and detects the changes in CFR more rapidly for both gender and age-wise. Conclusion: Older-age, male-sex, number of comorbidities and access to timely health care are identified as some of the risk factors associated with COVID-19 mortality in Spain. The non-parametric approach has investigated the influence of covariates on models and it provides the effect in both gender and age. The health impact of public for inaccurate estimates, inconsistent intelligence, conflicting messages, or resulting in misinformation can increase awareness among people and also induce panic situations that accompany major outbreaks of COVID-19.
Journal of Infection and Public Health
Available online 27 August 2021
In Press, Journal Pre-proof