The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a major role in COVID-19. Severity of several inflammation-related diseases has been associated with autoantibodies against RAS, particularly agonistic autoantibodies for angiotensin type-1 receptors (AA-AT1) and autoantibodies against ACE2 (AA-ACE2). Disease severity of COVID-19 patients was defined as mild, moderate or severe following the WHO Clinical Progression Scale and determined at medical discharge. Serum AA-AT1 and AA-ACE2 were measured in COVID-19 patients (n = 119) and non-infected controls (n = 23) using specific solid-phase, sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Serum LIGHT (TNFSF14; tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 14) levels were measured with the corresponding assay kit. At diagnosis, AA-AT1 and AA-ACE2 levels were significantly higher in the COVID-19 group relative to controls, and we observed significant association between disease outcome and serum AA-AT1 and AA-ACE2 levels. Mild disease patients had significantly lower levels of AA-AT1 (p < 0.01) and AA-ACE2 (p < 0.001) than moderate and severe patients. No significant differences were detected between males and females. The increase in autoantibodies was not related to comorbidities potentially affecting COVID-19 severity. There was significant positive correlation between serum levels of AA-AT1 and LIGHT (TNFSF14; rPearson = 0.70, p < 0.001). Both AA-AT1 (by agonistic stimulation of AT1 receptors) and AA-ACE2 (by reducing conversion of Angiotensin II into Angiotensin 1-7) may lead to increase in AT1 receptor activity, enhance proinflammatory responses and severity of COVID-19 outcome. Patients with high levels of autoantibodies require more cautious control after diagnosis. Additionally, the results encourage further studies on the possible protective treatment with AT1 receptor blockers in COVID-19.