B cells are important in immunity to both SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination, but B cell receptor (BCR) repertoire development in these contexts has not been compared. We analyse serial samples from 171 SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals and 63 vaccine recipients, and find the global BCR repertoire differs between them. Following infection, IgG1/3 and IgA1 BCRs increase, somatic hypermutation (SHM) decreases and, in severe disease, IgM and IgA clones are expanded. In contrast, after vaccination the proportion of IgD/M BCRs increase, SHM is unchanged and expansion of IgG clones is prominent. VH1-24, which targets the N-terminal domain (NTD) and contributes to neutralization, is expanded post-infection except in the most severe disease. Infection generates a broad distribution of SARS-CoV-2-specific clones predicted to target the spike protein, whilst a more focused response after vaccination mainly targets the spike’s receptor-binding domain. Thus the nature of SARS-CoV-2 exposure differentially impacts BCR repertoire development, potentially informing vaccine strategies.

Fuente: Cell Reports
Available online 31 January 2022, 110393