The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been identified in over 110 million people with no studies comparing pre-infection pulmonary function to post-infection. This study’s aim was to compare pre-infection and post-infection pulmonary function tests (PFT) in COVID-19 infected patients to better delineate between preexisting abnormalities and effects of the virus. Methods: This was a retrospective multi-center cohort study. Patients were identified based on having COVID-19 and a pre- and post-infection PFT within one year of infection during the time period of March 1, 2020 to November 10, 2020. Findings: There was a total of 80 patients, with an even split in gender; the majority were white (n = 70, 87·5%) and never smokers (n = 42, 52·5%). The majority had mild to moderate COVID-19 disease (n = 60, 75·1%) with 25 (31·2%) requiring hospitalization. There was no difference between the pre- and post-PFT data, specifically with the forced vital capacity (FVC) (p = 0·52), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)(p = 0·96), FEV1/FVC(p = 0·66), total lung capacity (TLC) (p = 0·21), and diffusion capacity (DLCO)(p = 0·88). There was no difference in the PFT when analyzed by hospitalization and disease severity. After adjusting for potential confounders, interstitial lung disease (ILD) was independently associated with a decreased FEV1 (-2·6 [95% CI, -6·7 to – 1·6] vs. -10·3 [95% CI, -17·7 to -2·9]; p = 0·03) and an increasing age (p = 0·01) and cystic fibrosis (-1·1 [95% CI, -4·5 to- 2·4] vs. -36·5 [95% CI, -52·1 to -21·0]; p < 0·01) were associated with decreasing FVC when comparing pre and post infection PFT. Only increasing age was independently associated with a reduction in TLC (p = 0·01) and DLCO (p = 0·02) before and after infection. Interpretation: This study showed that there is no difference in pulmonary function as measured by PFT before and after COVID-19 infection in non-critically ill classified patients. There could be a relationship with certain underlying lung diseases (interstitial lung disease and cystic fibrosis) and decreased lung function following infection. This information should aid clinicians in their interpretation of pulmonary function tests obtained following COVID-19 infection.
Fuente: EClinical Medicine