Background: Vaccination reduces COVID-19-related hospitalization among older adults. However, how SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccine regimens affect vaccine-elicited immunity remain unclear. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study recruiting adults aged ≥70 years with comorbidities in Hong Kong. Demographic and clinical information were collected using a questionnaire. Neutralizing antibody (nAb) titers (against ancestral and Omicron strains) and SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell response were analyzed according to infection and vaccination status. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to assess the associations of BNT162b2 and booster doses with higher nAb titers, with adjustment for comorbidities. Findings: In July 2022, 101 patients were recruited, of whom 25 (24%) had previous infection. Overall, the geometric mean titer (GMT) of BA.5 nAb was 2.8-fold lower than that against BA.2 (P < 0.0001). The ancestral strain and BA.2 titers were higher for the 3-4-dose-BNT162 group than the 2-dose-BNT162b2 group. Non-infected individuals in the 3-4-dose-CoronaVac group had a more robust T cell response than the 2-dose-CoronaVac group (P = 0.0181), but there was no significant difference between the 2-dose-BNT162b2 and 3-4-dose-BNT162b groups. Patients who had heterologous CoronaVac-BNT162b2 prime-boost regimen had 3.22-fold higher BA.5 nAb titers than those who were primed/boosted with CoronaVac (P = 0.0207). Patients with hybrid immunity had higher Omicron nAb titers than those with vaccine-only immunity. Multivariable analysis showed that BNT162b2 and booster doses were independently associated with higher ancestral strain nAb titers. Interpretation: Our data support the use of booster doses for older adults with or without prior infection. Non-infected individuals primed with CoronaVac will benefit from heterologous mRNA vaccine booster.
Fuente: EBioMedicine Home