This study, which included serological and cellular immunity tests, evaluated whether coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination adequately protected healthcare workers (HCWs) from COVID-19. Serological investigations were conducted among 1600 HCWs (mean ± standard deviation, 7.4 ± 1.4 months after the last COVID-19 vaccination). Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies N-Ig, Spike-Ig (Roche), N-IgG, Spike-IgM, and -IgG (Abbott), were evaluated using a questionnaire of health condition. 161 HCWs were analyzed for cellular immunity using T-SPOT® SARS-CoV-2 kit before, and 52 HCWs were followed up until 138.3 ± 15.7 days after their third vaccination. Spike-IgG value was 954.4 ± 2282.6 AU/mL. Forty-nine of the 1600 HCWs (3.06%) had pre-existing SARS-CoV-2 infection. None of the infectious seropositive HCWs required hospitalization. T-SPOT value was 85.0 ± 84.2 SFU/106 cells before the third vaccination, which increased to 219.4 ± 230.4 SFU/106 cells immediately after, but attenuated later (to 111.1 ± 133.6 SFU/106 cells). Poor counts (< 40 SFU/106 cells) were present in 34.8% and 38.5% of HCWs before and after the third vaccination, respectively. Our findings provide insights into humoral and cellular immune responses to repeated COVID-19 vaccinations. COVID-19 vaccination was effective in protecting HCWs from serious illness during the original Wuhan-1, Alpha, Delta and also ongoing Omicron-predominance periods. However, repeated vaccinations using current vaccine versions may not induce sufficient cellular immunity in all HCWs.

Fuente: Scientific Reports
Published: 21 October 2022