Background: Lianhua Qingwen Granules or Capsules (LHQW) has accumulated much research evidence in the fight against the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic. However, there are still few data on its efficacy and safety in children with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of LHQW in children with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron infection. Methods: We conducted a single-center, propensity-score matched retrospective cohort study of children with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron infection in Shanghai New International Expo Center mobile cabin hospital between April 1st and June 1st, 2022. Eligible patients received either LHQW granules/capsules plus supportive care (LHQW group) or supportive care alone (control group). The primary outcome was the negative conversion time of nucleic acid. Secondary outcomes included the negative conversion rate of nucleic acid, the length of hospital stay, clinical disease progression, and cycle threshold [Ct] values for SARS-CoV-2 open reading frame [ORF1ab] or nucleocapsid [N] genes. Results: Overall, 2808 patients were enrolled, and 346 patients in each group were included in the analysis. Among the propensity-score matched groups, LHQW treatment was associated with an accelerated negative conversion time of nucleic acid (median: 5 d vs. 6 d, Hazard ratio: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.08-1.46, Log-rank P < 0.001), a higher negative conversion rate of nucleic acid (Day 2-6: 2.9% vs. 0.6%, P = 0.036; 29.8% vs. 5.5%, P < 0.001; 42.5% vs. 24.3%, P < 0.001; 51.4% vs. 31.5%, P < 0.001; 63.3% vs. 55.2%, P = 0.030), shorter hospital stay (median: 10 d vs. 11 d, Hazard ratio: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.29-1.74, Log-rank P < 0.001), and lower rates of asymptomatic infection progressing to mild (37.9% vs. 46.5%, P = 0.021). Conclusion: Our study suggested that LHQW treatment was associated with faster clinical recovery in children with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron infection.
Available online 11 January 2023, 154665