Objectives: Waning vaccine-induced immunity and emergence of new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants which may lead to immune escape, pose a major threat to the COVID-19 pandemic. Currently, enhanced efficacy of the neutralization antibodies (NAb) produced after the booster dose of vaccinations against the Omicron variant is the main focus of vaccine strategy research. In this study we have analyzed the potency of the NAbs and IgGs produced after the third vaccine dose in patients infected with Omicron variant and wild-type (WT) SARS-CoV-2. Methods: We enrolled 75 patients with Omicron variant breakthrough infections, and 87 patients with WT infections. We recorded the clinical characteristics and vaccination information of all patients and measured the NAb and anti-S1 (spike protein)+N (nucleocapsid protein) IgG-binding antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in serum samples of Omicron variant-infected patients at admission, and patients with WT COVID-19 infection from the time of admission and discharge, and one-year to two-years follow-ups. Results: Our results demonstrated higher NAb levels, fewer clinical symptoms, and faster viral shedding in Omicron variant infected patients vaccinated with the booster dose. Hybrid immunity (natural infection plus vaccination) induces higher NAb levels than vaccine-only immunity. NAb and IgG levels decreased significantly at one-year follow-up in WT convalescents with natural infection. The NAb and IgG levels in booster-vaccinated COVID-19 patients were higher than those in two-dose-vaccinated patients. Conclusion: Our results suggest that booster vaccinations are required to improve the level of protective NAbs. Moreover, our data provide important evidence for vaccination strategies based on existing vaccines.

Fuente: International Immunopharmacology
Available online 5 April 2023