SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to evolve and new variants emerge. Using nationwide Danish data, we estimate the transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron subvariants BA.1 and BA.2 within households. Among 22,678 primary cases, we identified 17,319 secondary infections among 50,588 household contacts during a 1–7 day follow-up. The secondary attack rate (SAR) was 29% and 39% in households infected with Omicron BA.1 and BA.2, respectively. BA.2 was associated with increased susceptibility of infection for unvaccinated household contacts (Odds Ratio (OR) 1.99; 95%–CI 1.72-2.31), fully vaccinated contacts (OR 2.26; 95%–CI 1.95–2.62) and booster-vaccinated contacts (OR 2.65; 95%–CI 2.29–3.08), compared to BA.1. We also found increased infectiousness from unvaccinated primary cases infected with BA.2 compared to BA.1 (OR 2.47; 95%–CI 2.15–2.84), but not for fully vaccinated (OR 0.66; 95%–CI 0.57–0.78) or booster-vaccinated primary cases (OR 0.69; 95%–CI 0.59–0.82). Omicron BA.2 is inherently more transmissible than BA.1. Its immune-evasive properties also reduce the protective effect of vaccination against infection, but do not increase infectiousness of breakthrough infections from vaccinated individuals.

Fuente: Nature Communications

Published: 30 September 2022