The local immune-inflammatory response elicited by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is still poorly described, as well as the extent to which its characteristics may be associated with the outcome of critical Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this prospective monocenter study, all consecutive COVID-19 critically ill patients admitted from February to December 2020 and explored by fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were included. Biological assays, including digital ELISA cytokine profiling and targeted eicosanoid metabolomic analysis, were performed on paired blood and BAL fluid (BALF). Clinical outcome was assessed through the World Health Organization 10-point Clinical Progression Scale (WHO-CPS) at the 28th day (D28) following the admission to intensive care unit. A D28-WHO-CPS value higher than 5 defined a poor outcome. Seventy-six patients were included, 45 (59%) had a poor day-28 outcome. As compared to their counterparts, patients with D28-WHO-CPS > 5 exhibited a neutrophil-predominant bronchoalveolar phenotype, with a higher BALF neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, a blunted local type I interferon response, a decompartimentalized immune-inflammatory response illustrated by lower BALF/blood ratio of concentrations of IL-6 (1.68 [0.30–4.41] vs. 9.53 [2.56–19.1]; p = 0.001), IL-10, IL-5, IL-22 and IFN-γ, and a biological profile of vascular endothelial injury illustrated by a higher blood concentration of VEGF and higher blood and/or BALF concentrations of several vasoactive eicosanoids. In critically ill COVID-19 patients, we identified bronchoalveolar and blood immune-inflammatory biomarker signature associated with poor 28-day outcome.

Fuente: Scientific Reports

Published: 09 June 2022