Objective: Influenza A virus belongs to the most studied virus and its mutant initiates epidemic and pandemics outbreaks. Inoculation is the significant foundation to diminish the risk of infection. To prevent an incidence of influenza from the transmission, various practical approaches require more advancement and progress. More efforts and research must take in front to enhance vaccine efficacy. Methods: The present research emphasizes the development and expansion of a universal vaccine for the influenza virus. Research focuses on vaccine design with high efficacy. In this study, numerous computational approaches were used, covering a wide range of elements and ideas in bioinformatics methodology. Various B and T-cell epitopic peptides derived from the Neuraminidase protein N1 are recognized by these approaches. With the implementation of numerous obtained databases and bioinformatics tools, the different immune framework methods of the conserved sequences of N1 neuraminidase were analyzed. NCBI databases were employed to retrieve amino acid sequences. The antigenic nature of the neuraminidase sequence was achieved by the VaxiJen server and Kolaskar and Tongaonkar method. After screening of various B and T cell epitopes, one efficient peptide each from B cell epitope and T cell epitopes was assessed for their antigenic determinant vaccine efficacy. Identical two B cell epitopes were recognized from the N1 protein when analyzed using B-cell epitope prediction servers. The detailed examination of amino acid sequences for interpretation of B and T cell epitopes was achieved with the help of the ABCPred and Immune Epitope Database. Results: Computational immunology via immunoinformatic study exhibited RPNDKTG as having its high conservancy efficiency and demonstrated as a good antigenic, accessible surface hydrophilic B-cell epitope. Among T cell epitope analysis, YVNISNTNF was selected for being a conserved epitope. T cell epitope was also analyzed for its allergenicity and cytotoxicity evaluation. YVNISNTNF epitope was found to be a non-allergen and not toxic for cells as well. This T-cell epitope with maximum world populace coverages was scrutinized for its association with the HLA-DRB1*0401 molecule. Results from docking simulation analyses showed YVNISNTNF having lower binding energy, the radius of gyration (Rg), RMSD values, and RMSE values which make the protein structure more stable and increase its ability to become an epitopic peptide for influenza virus vaccination. Conclusions: We propose that this epitope analysis may be successfully used as a measurement tool for the robustness of an antigen-antibody reaction between mutant strains in the annual design of the influenza vaccine.

Fuente: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Available online 21 April 2022, 103283