Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a rare and severe condition that follows benign COVID-19. We report autosomal recessive deficiencies of OAS1OAS2, or RNASEL in five unrelated children with MIS-C. The cytosolic dsRNA-sensing OAS1 and OAS2 generate 2′-5′-linked oligoadenylates (2-5A) that activate the ssRNA-degrading RNase L. Monocytic cell lines and primary myeloid cells with OAS1OAS2, or RNASEL deficiencies produce excessive amounts of inflammatory cytokines upon dsRNA or SARS-CoV-2 stimulation. Exogenous 2-5A suppresses cytokine production in OAS1- but not RNase L-deficient cells. Cytokine production in RNase L-deficient cells is impaired by MDA5 or RIG-I deficiency and abolished by MAVS deficiency. Recessive OAS–RNase L deficiencies in these patients unleash the production of SARS-CoV-2–triggered, MAVS-mediated inflammatory cytokines by mononuclear phagocytes, thereby underlying MIS-C.

20 Dec 2022