Background: Zoonotic coronaviruses have caused several endemic and pandemic situations around the world. SARS caused the first epidemic alert at the beginning of this century, followed by MERS. COVID-19 appeared to be highly contagious, with human-to-human transmission by aerosol droplets, and reached nearly all countries around the world. A plethora of studies were performed, with reports being published within a short period of time by scientists and medical physicians. It has been difficult to find the relevant data to create an overview of the situation according to studies from accumulated findings and reports. In the present study we aimed to perform a comprehensive study in the context of the case fatality ratios (CFRs) of three major human Coronavirus outbreaks which occurred during the first twenty years of 21st century. Methods: In this study, we performed meta-analyses on SARS, MERS and COVID-19 outbreak events from publicly available records. Study analyses were performed with the help of highly reputable scientific databases such as PubMed, WOS and Scopus to evaluate and present current knowledge on zoonotic coronavirus outbreaks, starting from 2000 to the end of 2020. Results: A total of 250,194 research studies and records were identified with specific keywords and synonyms for the three viruses in order to cover all publications. In the end, 41 records were selected and included after applying several exclusion and inclusion criteria on identified datasets. SARS was found to have a nearly 11% case fatality ratio (CFR), which means the estimated number of deaths as a proportion of confirmed positive cases; Taiwan was the country most affected by the SARS outbreak based on the CFR analysis. MERS had CFRs of 35.8 and 26 in Saudi Arabia during the 2012 and 2015 outbreaks, respectively. COVID-19 resulted in a 2.2 CFR globally, and the USA reported the highest mortality ratio in the world in the end of first year of COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusion: Some members of the Coronaviridae family can cause highly contagious and devastating infections among humans. Within the last two decades, the whole world has witnessed several deadly emerging infectious diseases, which are most commonly zoonotic in nature. We conclude that pre-existing immunity during the early stages of a pandemic might be important, but case control and management strategies should be improved to decrease CFRs. Finally, we have addressed several concerns in relation to outbreak events in this study.
Fuente: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Volume 14, Issue 8, August 2021, Pages 1051-1064