Monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) drive the inflammatory response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and they are a major source of eicosanoids in airway inflammation. Here we report that MDM from SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals with mild disease show an inflammatory transcriptional and metabolic imprint that lasts for at least 5 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection. MDM from convalescent SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals showed a downregulation of pro-resolving factors and an increased production of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids, particularly 5-lipoxygenase-derived leukotrienes. Leukotriene synthesis was further enhanced by glucocorticoids and remained elevated at 3–5 months, but had returned to baseline at 12 months post SARS-CoV-2 infection. Stimulation with SARS-CoV-2 spike protein or LPS triggered exaggerated prostanoid-, type I IFN-, and chemokine responses in post COVID-19 MDM. Thus, SARS-CoV-2 infection leaves an inflammatory imprint in the monocyte/ macrophage compartment that drives aberrant macrophage effector functions and eicosanoid metabolism, resulting in long-term immune aberrations in patients recovering from mild COVID-19.
Fuente: Mucosal Immunol (2022)