mRNA vaccines have emerged as promising alternative platforms to conventional vaccines. Their ease of production, low cost, safety profile and high potency render them ideal candidates for prevention and treatment of infectious diseases, especially in the midst of pandemics. The challenges that face in vitro transcribed RNA were partially amended by addition of tethered adjuvants or co-delivery of naked mRNA with an adjuvant-tethered RNA. However, it wasn’t until recently that the progress made in nanotechnology helped enhance mRNA stability and delivery by entrapment in novel delivery systems of which, lipid nanoparticles. The continuous advancement in the fields of nanotechnology and tissue engineering provided novel carriers for mRNA vaccines such as polymeric nanoparticles and scaffolds. Various studies have shown the advantages of adopting mRNA vaccines for viral diseases and cancer in animal and human studies. Self-amplifying mRNA is considered today the next generation of mRNA vaccines and current studies reveal promising outcomes. This review provides a comprehensive overview of mRNA vaccines used in past and present studies, and discusses future directions and challenges in advancing this vaccine platform to widespread clinical use.

Fuente: Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Available online 30 June 2022