There is limited understanding of the viral antibody fingerprint following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in children. Herein, SARS-CoV-2 proteome-wide immunoprofiling of children with mild/moderate or severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) versus multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children versus hospitalized control patients revealed differential cytokine responses, IgM/IgG/IgA epitope diversity, antibody binding and avidity. Apart from spike and nucleocapsid, IgG/IgA recognized epitopes in nonstructural protein (NSP) 2, NSP3, NSP12–NSP14 and open reading frame (ORF) 3a–ORF9. Peptides representing epitopes in NSP12, ORF3a and ORF8 demonstrated SARS-CoV-2 serodiagnosis. Antibody-binding kinetics with 24 SARS-CoV-2 proteins revealed antibody parameters that distinguish children with mild/moderate versus severe COVID-19 or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Antibody avidity to prefusion spike correlated with decreased illness severity and served as a clinical disease indicator. The fusion peptide and heptad repeat 2 region induced SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies in rabbits. Thus, we identified SARS-CoV-2 antibody signatures in children associated with disease severity and delineate promising serodiagnostic and virus neutralization targets. These findings might guide the design of serodiagnostic assays, prognostic algorithms, therapeutics and vaccines in this important but understudied population.

Fuente: Nature immunology

Published: 05 October 2021