Although significant research was done to find effective drugs against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), no definite effective drug exists. Thus the research is now shifted towards immunomodulatory agents other than antivirals. In this review, we aim to describe the latest findings towards the role of type I IFN-mediated innate antiviral response against SARS-CoV-2 and discuss the use of IFNs as a medication for COVID-19. A growing body of evidence indicated a promoting active but delayed IFNs response to SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV in the infected bronchial epithelial cells. Studies have demonstrated that IFNs administration before the viral peak and the inflammatory phase of disease could offer a highly protective effect. However, IFNs Treatment during the inflammatory and severe stages of the disease causes immunopathology and long-lasting harm for patients. Therefore, it is critical to notice the best time window for IFNs administration. Further investigation of the clinical effectiveness of interferon for patients with mild to severe COVID-19 and its optimal timing and route of administration can be beneficial in finding a safe and effective antiviral therapy for the COVID-19 disease.

Fuente: Journal of Medical Virology

First published: 01 September 2021